Researchers documented a link between increasing rates of female education in developing countries and a subsequent decline in fertility rates e. In the context of an emerging global economy, increasing female representation in primary and secondary education was cited as an important factor in promoting national economic development, and therefore seen as a vehicle for social change. Feminist scholars documented sex discrimination in educational experiences and outcomes, and this early work led to the passage of Title IX in , legislation that prohibited discrimination on the basis of sex in federally funded educational programs. During the s and s, women gained access to higher education and their share of college degrees climbed steadily. Women now comprise the majority of US college students and have achieved parity with men in number of undergraduate and graduate degrees, though men are over represented in the most prestigious colleges and universities and obtain a greater number of doctoral degrees than women Jacobs
The Government has more money to invest into the education system, and more schools were built during these years. In a study by Rebecca Carter, of which private and public school 8th graders were looked at using the National Sex discrimination in education sociology Longitudinal Study NELSa study which provides many details regarding parental involvement in their child's educational attainment. Canadian Journal of Higher Education. The advantages granted boys in schools are not equal among all boys: working class boys and boys of color do not demonstrate the same academic success as Hairy indian, middle class boys. Gender ddiscrimination in education.
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True False Currently, seven-year-old Hailey and her parents are comfortable with her gender status, but Steve and Barb are concerned about what questions and problems might arise as she gets older. In an effort to clarify usage of the terms sex and gender Cock-eyed cunts, U. During half of our activities Only when it applies to our biological Sex discrimination in education sociology Only if we are actively following gender roles All of the time, in everything we do London: Stonewall. While the phenomenon of assigning work by gender is universal, its Seex are not. He even began to draw himself as a girl, complete with a dress and high-heeled shoes. In addition, Clarricoates discusses the linguistic sexism inherent to the adjective choice of teachers when admonishing or rewarding their pupils. They may begin to wonder Sex discrimination in education sociology the norms of society do not reflect their sense of self, and thus begin to feel at odds with the world. Throughout this chapter, we have examined the complexities of gender, sex, and sexuality. Short Answer Male-to-male sex is less visible; it occupies a separate space in the sex industry, and gay relationships are largely de-sexualised in popular culture. In the context of an emerging global economy, increasing female representation in primary and secondary education was cited as an important factor in promoting national economic development, eduaction therefore seen as a vehicle for social change.
The study of gender and education encompasses gender differences in educational outcomes such as achievement, attainment, and experiences within the education system.
- Sexual practices can differ greatly among groups.
- Sex differences in education are a type of sex discrimination in the education system affecting both men and women during and after their educational experiences.
- Just as gender is a social construction, so too is sexuality.
- The sociology of education is a diverse and vibrant subfield that features theory and research focused on how education as a social institution is affected by and affects other social institutions and the social structure overall, and how various social forces shape the policies, practices, and outcomes of schooling.
- When Harry was born, his parents, Steve and Barb, were delighted to add another boy to their family.
- Researchers documented a link between increasing rates of female education in developing countries and a subsequent decline in fertility rates e.
The study of gender and education encompasses gender differences in educational outcomes such as achievement, attainment, and experiences within the education system. This field also moves beyond the study of how gender influences educational outcomes and incorporates how these differences impact the labor market, family formation, and health outcomes.
Early research in gender and education focused on whether differences in the educational outcomes of males and females were due to biological differences. Over time, research began to show that biological differences between genders tend to be smaller than those within gender. Thus, biological differences may play a relatively small role in educational outcomes while other factors like socialization and differences in expectations of boys and girls may play a larger role. Research on primary and secondary school students examined how peer, teacher, and family interactions are related to gender differences while research on higher education examined sex segregation by major and gender differences in choices to attend or complete college.
Recently, research has shifted to examine the causes and consequences of the reversal of the gender gap in educational attainment. Women now outpace men in both college enrollment and completion in the majority of countries throughout the world. However, stark gender differences are still registered in field of study and returns to educational credentials.
This article includes classic works, research resources, empirical articles, and theoretical perspectives on gender and education. General overviews of gender and education provide broad information on trends and theories in this field. Jacobs focuses on gender specific trends in higher education and early theories that sought to explain these differences, while Buchmann, et al. DiPrete and Buchmann provides a thorough review and analyses of historical trends in gender and education in the United States, while Charles reviews trends in gender equality in education throughout the world.
Grant and Behrman and King and Hill both examine education patterns by gender in developing countries. Today, like developed nations, these countries are experiencing a reversal of the gender education gap where females now have an advantage over males. Buchmann, C. DiPrete, and A. Gender inequalities in education. Annual Review of Sociology Buchmann, DiPrete, and McDaniel review the literature on gender inequalities in education.
This work examines trends and explanations for gender educational disparities in the United States. It then recommends productive directions for future research.
Charles, M. Charles reviews theories and evidence of international trends in gender equality. She offers diverse explanations for uneven and counter-intuitive sex-segregation patterns in education, the labor market, and the household.
DiPrete, T. The rise of women: The growing gender gap in education and what it means for American schools. New York: Russell Sage Foundation. DiPrete and Buchmann provide an overview of the broader societal changes that accompanied the change in gender trends in higher education.
To explain these trends, they chart the performance of boys and girls over the educational life course with rigorous data; they consider the gender-specific impacts of factors such families, schools, peers, race, and class, and they offer clear recommendations for policies and research.
Grant, M. Gender gaps in educational attainment in less developed countries. Population and Development Review This article examines gender gaps in education throughout developing countries. Grant and Behrman examine thirty-eight countries in six developing regions around the world.
Developing countries are becoming more like developed nations in terms of experiencing a shift toward a female advantage in education. Jacobs, J. Gender inequality and higher education. Jacobs provides a thorough review of the literature related to gender and higher education that was published prior to Though outdated and not inclusive of current trends, this article provides insight into previous interpretations of theories and trends related to gender and education.
King, E. Hill, eds. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Univ. Users without a subscription are not able to see the full content on this page. Please subscribe or login. Oxford Bibliographies Online is available by subscription and perpetual access to institutions. For more information or to contact an Oxford Sales Representative click here. Not a member?
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General Overviews General overviews of gender and education provide broad information on trends and theories in this field. How to Subscribe Oxford Bibliographies Online is available by subscription and perpetual access to institutions.
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Even among Western cultures, attitudes can differ. Research on how the intersection of race, class, and gender shapes educational experiences and outcomes is an important direction for the future of the sociology of education. Additionally, average math test scores for boys and girls are similar, although there is more variation among boys, leaving them with the highest, but also with the lowest, scores. Additionally, women who are in the paid labour force still do the majority of the unpaid work at home. Pew Research Center.
Sex discrimination in education sociology. Navigation menu
Researchers documented a link between increasing rates of female education in developing countries and a subsequent decline in fertility rates e. In the context of an emerging global economy, increasing female representation in primary and secondary education was cited as an important factor in promoting national economic development, and therefore seen as a vehicle for social change.
Feminist scholars documented sex discrimination in educational experiences and outcomes, and this early work led to the passage of Title IX in , legislation that prohibited discrimination on the basis of sex in federally funded educational programs. During the s and s, women gained access to higher education and their share of college degrees climbed steadily. Women now comprise the majority of US college students and have achieved parity with men in number of undergraduate and graduate degrees, though men are over represented in the most prestigious colleges and universities and obtain a greater number of doctoral degrees than women Jacobs Despite this greater equality in educational access, women remain significantly behind men in economic and social status.
There remains a significant gender gap in pay, while women are also concentrated in low status, sex stereotyped occupations and continue to bear primary responsibility for domestic tasks despite their increased labor force participation. While education is seen as an important mechanism of upward mobility in US society, many sociologists of education have described the educational system as an institution of social and cultural reproduction.
Existing pat terns of inequality, including those related to gender, are reproduced within schools through formal and informal processes. Knowledge of how the educational system contributes to the status of women requires a look at the institution itself and the processes that occur within schools. Research following Title IX documented a wide gender gap in course taking during high school that led to different educational and occupational paths for men and women.
For example, the American Association of University Women revealed in a report titled Shortchanging Girls, Shortchanging America that girls took fewer advanced math and science courses during high school, and these course taking patterns left them unprepared to pursue these fields in higher education.
This contrasts with the primary school years, where girls receive better grades in math and are often over represented in high ability math courses, while boys are over represented in low ability courses.
Additionally, average math test scores for boys and girls are similar, although there is more variation among boys, leaving them with the highest, but also with the lowest, scores. Recent research suggests that the gaps in high school course taking are closing, and girls and boys now take similar numbers of math and science courses. This may be the result of increased educational requirements and fewer choices in course enrollment, as girls continue to score lower on standardized tests and express less interest in these subjects.
In addition, girls are now taking advanced courses such as calculus at comparable rates to boys, with the exception of physics. Furthermore, technology and computer courses remain highly gendered: though both boys and girls take computer courses, boys are more likely to take high skills classes, such as those that focus on computer programming, while girls are over represented in courses featuring word processing and data entry, skills associated with secretarial work AAUW Conversely, girls are more highly concentrated in the language arts, including literature, composition, and foreign language courses, and they tend to score higher than boys on verbal skills on standardized tests.
This gender gap in favor of girls does not appear to be closing, but it is given relatively little attention in discussions of gender and education. These high school course taking patterns foreshadow gender differences in higher education, where a high degree of sex segregation remains in terms of degrees and specializations.
In the United States, women are concentrated in education, English, nursing, and some social sciences, and they are less likely than men to pursue degrees in science, math, engineering, and technology. Sex typing in education appears to be a worldwide phenomenon, though it varies somewhat in degree and scope between countries.
In countries where educational access is limited and reserved for members of the elite, women are often as likely as men to have access to all parts of the curriculum Bradley ; Hanson However, in countries with more extensive educational systems, women have lower rates of participation in science and technology Hanson , fields greatly valued because of their link to development and modernity. Some have used a rational choice approach in explaining the persistence of educational segregation, particularly that of higher education.
These scholars suggest that women choose female dominated fields despite their lower status and pay because they will suffer smaller penalties for an absence from the workforce for child rearing; however, women in male dominated fields not only receive higher pay but are also offered more flexibility and autonomy. Others suggest that while individual choices are at play in perpetuating sex segregation, these choices are constrained by cultural beliefs that limit what women and men see as possible or appropriate options Correll Math, science, and technology are regarded as masculine subjects, especially given their emphasis on objective knowledge and rational action, and women are seen as ill equipped for these fields.
Conversely, subjects such as language arts and nursing are perceived as feminine subjects, and men are largely underrepresented in these fields. In contrast to the push to include women in male dominated fields, however, the under representation of men in these subject areas goes largely unacknowledged and is often not regarded as problematic, probably due to the low status and low paid jobs associated with these fields.
Several scholars have examined this hidden curriculum within schools, pointing to ways in which classroom interactions with teachers and between students impart these lessons.
Observational studies by Sadker and Sadker suggest that in the same schools and in the same classes, boys receive more attention than girls.
Teachers ask them more questions and offer them more feedback and constructive criticism, all of which are essential to learning. Boys monopolize classroom discussion beginning in the early school years, and girls become quieter over time, participating little in college classrooms.
These classroom dynamics reinforce notions of femininity, teaching girls that they should be quiet, passive, and defer to boys, characteristics that disadvantage girls in competitive fields of math and science. Furthermore, an emphasis on social and romantic success can distract young women from their studies and make academic pursuits tangential.
Several feminist scholars have advocated single sex schooling in order to avoid these negative consequences. These benefits allegedly result from smaller classes, higher teacher quality and attention, and freedom from social pressures of romance. However, other scholars argue that single sex education itself does not ensure any particular outcomes because these schools vary greatly in the inspirations, desired outcomes, and sociocultural environments they embody.
Indeed, recent research on single sex schools is often inconsistent, and their advantages in comparison to coeducational schools may have decreased after public schools began addressing issues of gender bias.
More research is needed on school characteristics that are associated with improved outcomes for girls. They argue that though the gender gap in math and science is closing, boys remain behind in language arts course taking and verbal skills. Further, boys are overrepreented in remedial and special education classes, and they are more likely to fail a course or drop out of school. Others contend that these disadvantages are short term costs of maintaining long term privilege: subjects in which girls outperform boys are devalued, so boys focus their energy elsewhere, such as in sports or math and science, which hold more prestige and will earn greater status and pay in the long run.
Moreover, negative outcomes tend to be concentrated among working class boys and boys of color, suggesting that these problems may reflect race and class inequality rather than disadvantages affecting all boys. Regardless, considering boys only as a contrast group to the experiences of girls, rather than examining their position within and experiences of the educational system, will not provide a complete understanding of issues of gender in education. Future research focused on the experiences and behaviors of boys in schools is needed to further this knowledge.
Research on how race and class shape gendered educational experiences and outcomes has been relatively scarce, and only in the past ten years have race and class become focal points in research on gender in education. The advantages granted boys in schools are not equal among all boys: working class boys and boys of color do not demonstrate the same academic success as white, middle class boys. Further, among some groups, girls surpass their male counterparts in math and science course taking and achievement.
Ferguson examines how the hidden curriculum affects black boys, noting that many school practices disadvantage black boys, leading them to seek achievement and masculinity in ways that are detrimental to their future success. Similarly, perceived cultural differences can penalize girls who do not meet white, middle class standards of femininity: working class girls and girls of color are sometimes seen as troublemakers for being outspoken or assertive.
Research on how the intersection of race, class, and gender shapes educational experiences and outcomes is an important direction for the future of the sociology of education. Back to Sociology of Gender.