A regional jet RJ is a jet airliner and a regional airliner with less than seats. The s saw the emergence of the most widespread Canadair Regional Jet and its Embraer Regional Jet counterpart, then the larger Embraer E-Jet and multiple competing projects. In the US, they are limited in size by scope clauses. Regional Jet is an industry jargon and not a regulatory category. Embry—Riddle Aeronautical University defines the regional jet as up to seats capacity.
The airline did not survive, eventually being merged with the ultra low cost carrier Frontier Airlines. Customer Services. Wikimedia list article. There is also precedent for under-configuring aircraft. Jrt relish the complexity this business poses and enjoy tackling problems that reach across techni
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Early flying machines Experimental X-planes. Jet airliners Regional airliners. Regional Jet 3D Model. From a lower price of entry to getting a jet in the sky faster, pre-owned can be an excellent value and smart choice. Sign up for our free newsletter. In other projects Wikimedia Fake hewitt love nude. Most of the orders are from post-Soviet markets and the Middle East, for European markets are Regional jet models fairly hesitant to adopt aircraft from the former Soviet Union. Bombardier Regional jet models recertify the aircraft as the CRJ model, with a lower MTOW to comply with the scope clauses, and hopes to sell this new configuration to replace up to existing seaters with US regional airlines. Retrieved 20 November While no further CRJ or CRJ jet liners have been constructed sinceover the years since then, various technologies and innovations have been retrofitted onto examples of the type, which have largely remained in commercial service. By date and usage By tail number Most-produced. Model Inspector.
The Mitsubishi SpaceJet family of aircraft is designed to target the underserved regional jet market.
- The regional jet has had a significant impact on the airline industry, providing an option to efficiently ferry people to and from smaller airports where large airplanes are simply not a necessity.
- Legal Notice: The intellectual property depicted in this model, including the brand "bombardier", is not affiliated with or endorsed by the original rights holders.
- A regional jet RJ is a jet airliner and a regional airliner with less than seats.
- It was based on the Bombardier Challenger series business jets.
- Progress mostly happens in inches, in tweaks, and in increments.
A regional jet RJ is a jet airliner and a regional airliner with less than seats. The s saw the emergence of the most widespread Canadair Regional Jet and its Embraer Regional Jet counterpart, then the larger Embraer E-Jet and multiple competing projects. In the US, they are limited in size by scope clauses. Regional Jet is an industry jargon and not a regulatory category.
Embry—Riddle Aeronautical University defines the regional jet as up to seats capacity. The scope clauses , limiting the aircraft size and number in US regional airlines , is often a design point for regional jets. Since , American Airlines , Delta Air Lines and United Airlines cap their regional airlines' jets at 76 seats and maximum take-off weight at 86, lb 39 t. These aircraft are widely used by commuter airlines such as SkyWest and American Eagle. The low rate of fuel consumption, which translates to low cost of operation, makes regional jets ideal for use as commuter aircraft or to connect lower traffic airports to large or medium hub airports.
In was introduced the Sud Aviation Caravelle 80— seats , ordered by Flag Carriers , the first purpose-built short-haul jetliner, a twin turbojet design for inter-European routes.
The Caravelle used the forward fuselage nose section of the de Havilland Comet , the first commercial jetliner , not effective for continental-European flights. In , Aeroflot introduced the 32 seat Yakovlev Yak and the 65—85 seats Fokker F28 Fellowship was introduced in In , the 40—44 seats VFW-Fokker saw service entry with its distinctive overwing engines, 19 were built. Some business jets like the British Aerospace first delivery: and Dassault Falcon 20 were operated by small airlines from the s, and the small Aerospatiale Corvette was used as a regional airliner from the s.
In , the US Airline Deregulation Act led to route liberalization , favouring small airliners demand. US passengers were disappointed by these, lacking aircraft lavatories or flight attendants of larger jet aircraft. As feeder routes grew, regional airlines replaced these small aircraft with larger turboprop airliners to feed larger airline hubs. Early small jets had higher operating costs than turboprops on short routes. The gap narrowed with better turbofans, and closed with the higher utilization due to higher speeds.
Low aircraft noise and short takeoffs were suited to city-center to city-center service, a small market niche, like the de Havilland Canada Dash 7 , but four engines led to higher maintenance costs than twin-engine designs and BAe did not produce a lower operating cost twin-engine design, unlike the Dash 8. In was introduced the 97— seats Fokker , a stretched F28, followed by the shorter, 72—85 seats Fokker 70 in Turboprop manufacturers wanted to develop their portfolio.
Canadair 's purchase by Bombardier in enabled a seat stretched development of its Challenger business jet , green-lighted by then chief executive Laurent Beaudoin in March They replaced the turboprops thanks to their better perceived image and larger range. On small-capacity long routes, they could offer a better service by increasing frequencies at a smaller capacity and could replace mainline jet airliners like McDonnell Douglas DC-9s and Boeing s.
Since , the Fairchild Dornier JET was also competing but the type did not enter large scale production as Fairchild Dornier went bankrupt, also ending the larger Fairchild Dornier family development. After evaluating Fokker's opportunities and challenges, Bombardier dropped the prospect on 27 February. The share of US domestic flying by 32 to seats regional jets grew to one-third from to , as network carriers subcontracted low-volume routes to cheaper commuter airlines with smaller planes.
Amid regional jet usage saturation, bankruptcy of regional airlines and shrinking of Delta Air Lines and Northwest Airlines , cramped seaters were evolving to more spacious 70— seaters, limited by union rules. In late , Bombardier suspended its CRJ production line. Between through , large planes were grounded while 1, regional jets were added.
US major carriers high pilots' wages led them to subcontract flights to regional airlines with lower labor costs. Pilot unions then demanded to regulate subcontracted aircraft size to a 50 seats maximum scope clause. In turn, large routes were served by suboptimal seat jets which accelerated demand for those types in North America. Embraer envisioned a market for more than aircraft and planned to produce up to 80 a year, but at peak delivered ERJs in while Bombardier delivered CRJs in Airlines renegotiated scope clause limits to seat jets as the market consolidates.
Larger aircraft came back on regional routes for their efficiency and on short routes turboprops don't lose too much time for a lower cost, reversing the s trend. A majority of them will be scrapped. Bombardier and Embraer have been locked in a series of counter-lawsuits over export taxes and subsidies.
Although not as economical as the turboprop, by flying directly to and from smaller airports, they reduced the need for low-cost regional airliners. Introduced in , the Antonov An has been successfully certified and tested and the production has started with three machines already built. Most of the orders are from post-Soviet markets and the Middle East, for European markets are still fairly hesitant to adopt aircraft from the former Soviet Union. In , after attempting to renegotiate scope clauses, United Airlines ultimately decided to order fifty CRJs for its regional affiliates; the aircraft will be sourced from existing CRJ airframes and reconfigured with 50 seats in three classes.
Bombardier will recertify the aircraft as the CRJ model, with a lower MTOW to comply with the scope clauses, and hopes to sell this new configuration to replace up to existing seaters with US regional airlines. By August , there were 1, seat jets operated worldwide including in the US, often more than 20 years old. SkyWest wants to replace of its ageing Bombardier CRJs and ERJs and while Many have logged 30, cycles, their life may be extended to 60, cycles for more years of service.
SkyWest asked Bombardier, Embraer and Mitsubishi Aircraft to develop a new aircraft but the market is regulated by scope clauses. A smaller airplane is more costly per seat mile than a larger plane, but it mostly depends on the airline: in , Bombardier was estimating regional jet costs at 9 to 10 US cents per seat mile while flying a Boeing costs less than 8 cents per seat mile at Southwest Airlines but 15 cents at Continental Airlines.
While designed primarily for medium stage lengths, regional jets may now be found supplementing major trunk routes alongside traditional larger jet aircraft. RJs have also meant a return of jet service to cities where full-size jet service had departed over a decade ago, such as Macon, Georgia , and Brownsville, Texas. The idea that regional jets would provide point-to-point service and bypass the hub-and-spoke system may not be materializing as it was expected.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. It has been suggested that Competition in the Regional jet market be merged into this article. Discuss Proposed since October For the airline operator, see Regional Jet airline. Rhoades, Blaise P. Waguespack Jr. Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University. Flight Global. April 10, February 27, USA Today. The Globe and Mail. Wall Street Journal.
Archived from the original on August 20, The Oklahoman. Sputnik News. SuperJet International. Aviation Week and Space Technology. June Aviation International News. July 10, Aviation Week Network. Aviation Week. February 6, July Lists of aircraft.
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A cargo door retrofit has been developed for the installation of former passenger-configured aircraft to extend the useful life of early-built CRJs. Please enter a valid email address. Jane's All The World's Aircraft — CRJ Series. Regional Jet is an industry jargon and not a regulatory category.
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The Rise and Rise of Regional Aircraft | Commercial Aviation content from Aviation Week
A recent move by United Airlines to purchase brand new 76 seat regional jets but only use two-thirds of the seating capacity raises just that question. United ushered in by touting a new era of premium luxury for customers. The airline backed up the claim this month by kitting out a new fleet of regional jets in style, with ten first-class seats, 20 extra -leg- room economy plus seats, and only 20 regular coach class seats in the back.
In addition, each aircraft will have a snack station and four California-sized closets. It might be. But it bears another look. Unlike the toseat CRJ, however, these aircraft will be modified to carry just 50 passengers and to weigh in under 75, pounds. The numbers might not mean much to customers, but they are magic for United. Unsurprisingly, airline management would like regional airlines to fly more and larger jets.
The pilots would like to see all but the smallest aircraft flown by the better-paid mainline pilots. So far, there is no clear winner of the slow-motion sparring match. The CRJ may therefore be more of a chess move by United. On the one hand, it shows that United recognizes that labor will have the upper hand in the next round of contract negotiations, which has already started.
Globally, the supply of pilots has been tightening for several years, pinched by rapid growth at Middle East and Asian airlines and regulatory changes in the U. In the last round of negotiations, U. United knows it will not achieve any relief from its current scope clauses in this round. At the same time, the maneuver signals to pilots that United is not going to roll over. In a draw from Economics textbook chapters on game theory, the company is showing that it is effectively prepared to burn money rather than give in to labor.
After all, United could have chosen to operate these routes with seat mainline narrowbodies instead, perhaps scaling back the number of departures per day to match the number of total seats. In a similar game, American purchased a special variant of the common seat Embraer regional jet to skirt scope clauses in the late s. With only 37 seats, the Embraer allowed American to increase the number of aircraft that could be subcontracted to its regional partner. Like most shortened aircraft variants, this model had higher costs per seat-mile than the more common seater and American retired them early, though they are still in use at some other airlines.
There is also precedent for under-configuring aircraft. In , American Airlines outfitted a fleet of Fokker s with just 56 seats to combat the upstart Legend Airlines. Upsetting the status quo, Legend launched with an exclusive new terminal and seat aircraft to establish a new market. American, feeling a threat to its hub at nearby Dallas Fort Worth, fought back hard both in the courtroom and at the airport.
Legend capitulated in eight months. Another case was Midwest Express Airlines. The airline regularly obtained a fare premium over its competitors of 20 to 30 percent. Once it faced new nonstop competition, Midwest was quickly forced to add seats to its planes and reduce fares. The airline did not survive, eventually being merged with the ultra low cost carrier Frontier Airlines. Also in the early s, several entrepreneurs attempted to offer all-business-class service across the Atlantic, using less than half the potential capacity of Boeing s and s.
In the end, incumbents had better access to corporate customers for the front of the cabin, and extra revenue from economy passengers in the back. There are many examples of airlines under-configuring aircraft for strategic reasons. Each case seems like a good idea at the time. Outside that modest range, however, low-density aircraft have often been short-lived. I have been untangling knots in the aviation business for over 20 years. I relish the complexity this business poses and enjoy tackling problems that reach across techni Jet interior.
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