Having worked in Africa for the past 15 years, we at African Impact feel very strongly about protecting the rights of the inspiring girls and women we work with across the continent. In East Africa in particular, we encounter a large number of females who have undergone one of the most widely-condemned acts of violence against women, female genital mutilation FGM. To promote the day of Zero Tolerance for Female Genital Mutilation, we want to share with you some key facts on this extreme form of discrimination and show you how you can help girls and women at risk of FGM. Female genital mutilation FGM , also known as female circumcision, comprises of all procedures that involve altering or injuring the female genitalia for non-medical reasons. It is proven to have no health benefits for girls and women and is most often performed in non-medical settings, meaning it is an extremely painful and dangerous experience.
Active Travel. Ayurveda Internships in Jaipur. In the living room, there are some slightly more representative pieces of furniture made of Chinese wood. If a needle and thread are being used, close tight Huge ass white cock will be placed to ensure that a flap of skin covers the vulva and extends from the Mons Veneris to the Perineum and which, after the Volunteer programs in female genital mutilation heals, will form a bridge of scar tissue that will totally occlude the vaginal entroitus. Why with World Unite? In recent years because of immigration and population movements, the practice is emerging among refugee populations in Europe and North America where the medical and obstetrical complications that mutilated women and girls are seeking treatment for is causing a lot of concern among health-care providers in Western countries. Our coordinator will advise you on how you should conduct yourself in order to avoid problems - your dressing style, valuables, and in dealing with local men. Training and consulting of farmers in Ghana. There are no health benefits to FGM.
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And many of these girls and women have long-term gynecological and urinary tract problems such as:. The efficiency and passion they dedicate to rescuing little girls is Volunteer programs in female genital mutilation of what an organization committed to improving lives and reducing suffering Volunteer be. Right here in Mali, I am also fundraising and am working with patients on the waiting list. One hundred percent of the donations it receives are used towards female genital mutilation eradication programs and assisting victims. McGregor, Deborah Kuhn I was given my basic needs and education until my village abandonned circumcision due to the work of CAGeM. Madison: University of Wisconsin Voluntfer. The boarding of simplest standard that we offer, is with families that Forced feminization punishment to the Tanzanian middle class. The opening is larger in women who are sexually active or have given birth by vaginal delivery, but the urethra opening may still be obstructed by scar tissue. Further, NAFGEM is looking for creative volunteers able Volunteer programs in female genital mutilation create educational materials posters, flyersillustrations, graphics, layouts and text materials in English.
Clitoraid is a non profit association that aims to build a "Pleasure hospital" in Burkina Faso, West Africa, which will offer free medical services for the physical restoration and rehabilitation of Female Genital Mutilation victims.
- Our wider work in FGM is to advance and protect the physical, mental, sexual and reproductive health rights of young people from female genital mutilation practicing communities.
- There is no health benefit for girls or women and possible medical complications include severe bleeding, cysts, infections, difficulty urinating and issues with childbirth.
- In most African cultures FGM is considered an essential ritual for the transition to being a woman, performed either at puberty or before marriage.
- A wide selection of internships in many countries.
- WWA offers training and educational opportunities for refugee and African immigrant women and girls to become change agents in their communities.
It is torture and a crime. Help us to put an end to this crime. FGM is a harmful and dangerous practice that involves the outer parts of the vagina- including the labia and the clitoris- being partially or totally removed. FGM is predominantly carried out in parts of Africa. Increasingly it has been found in societies in Asia and also migrant communities across Europe and America.
FGM is often carried out without aesthetic on girls between the ages of 3 and The implements used can be razors, scissors or knives. The practice causes extreme pain and the psychological and physical effects are devastating and can often be life threatening. FGM has been recognised as a practice that is born from societies with both gender imbalances and other forms of violence against women. There is a powerful global movement campaigning for an end to FGM at grassroots, regional, national and international levels.
We have compiled 16 of the most notable charities, campaigns and organisations working towards an eradication of FGM across the globe. Enjoy reading about these great organisations and we look forward to your feedback.
The charity works at community level, mapping best practise and collecting key data across communities, regions and countries.
The specific aim of this campaign is for a UN resolution which will require all states to adopt and implement legislation to ban female genital mutilation and to take all necessary legislative, political and operational measures aimed at ending the practice. This is the most significant step for the worldwide movement to ban FGM. If you would like to join the coalition you can submit your non-profit or charity here.
Their workshops offer a safe and non-confrontational space for women to talk about the often complex and conflicting feelings surrounding FGM. FGM survivors are supported to focus on empowerment and economic independence within their households, thus strengthening the role of women and girls in society.
CAGeM focuses on the empowerment and emotional restoration of survivors. The organisation seeks to help young women who are at risk of FGM or gender-based violence to access the appropriate services to protect them. They give support and counselling for FGM sufferers and offer expert advice on issues affecting FGM victims such as child birth, reversal procedures and reproductive health.
Daughters of Eve takes a holistic approach and recognises that FGM occurs in a wider context of gender based violence and issues relating to gender inequality. Their mission is for the European Union to adopt a comprehensive approach to end female genital mutilation and protect women and girls fleeing their countries for fear of being mutilated and suffering gender based violence. The ABF project has built and resourced a medical centre which provides free medication, gynaecological checks and counselling for women affected by FGM.
It also runs a sponsorship program that provides free education for girls and a subsidised school for girls and boys. The charity consists of multi-disciplinary networks of healthcare professionals, advocacy leaders and academics. The charity has launched an FGM resource film aimed at specialists to educate on FGM and they develop their evidence-based research methods with specialists. Another leader within Europe, France has spearheaded accountability and prosecution of FGM perpetrators and also offers free corrective surgery for FGM survivors.
GAMS is a charity that works with victims of FGM, forced child marriage and gender-based violence and offers free and anonymous counselling to victims. They also run training programmes and advocacy networks. Integrate Bristol is a charity that seeks to integrate children who have migrated to Britain from other countries into mainstream British life while keeping their cultural identity and a connection with their home country.
The lifeblood of the organisation is young activists from migrant communities who are campaigning key health and education strategies to be implemented by government departments. You can watch the film here. Sweden is a European leader in the fight against FGM. It is a nongovernmental organization works with grassroots and partner organisations to end FGM in Sweden and beyond.
The campaign brings together associations, companies and individuals to fight FGM by raising both awareness and funds. Resource and funds can often be a stumbling block for many charities fighting FGM. Working with business in partnership, like the Stop FGM campaign, has proven to be very effective.
Waris Dirie was subjected to FGM at the age of 5. By the age of 12 she was a victim of child marriage and had fled to the UK at the age of The Foundation seeks to raise awareness of FGM by providing education workshops, organising fundraising events and supporting victims. The Orchid Project is a charity that believes influencing decision makers at every level is the key to ending FGM for the next generation. At grassroots, regional and national levels, The Orchid Project seeks to advocate an abandonment of FGM and lobby and network in both diaspora communities and parent practising FGM societies.
The Orchid Project is charity that relies on fundraising and its small team networks with other charities, non-profits and organisations to create effective change.
Organisation With he art against FGM. This campaign is unique to any other FGM campaign we have seen! Launched two years ago in order to raise awareness on Female Genital Mutilation and to encourage people to take action, With he art against FGM is a collaboration of visual artists, musicians, poets, singers and writers.
Have a browse around their website to see some of the incredible art, beautiful songs and moving poetry that has been created. The campaign also organises competitions, exhibitions, concerts and social media activities to reach and mobilize as many people as possible. The group of artists are hoping to create emotional engagement and to stimulate a global discussion in online forums and social networks.
Searching for an affordable gift that is both empowering and uplifting for someone in need of that extra encouragement and good vibes this Christmas? Fo many years I have been interested in getting involved with any group trying to stop FGM.
Are there any groups in this area? We have an organization in my community Kenya which try to teach women and young girls the danger of FGM, if you are interested contact me for more information. I am based in Kenya too, Kitengela Kajiado. I would love to also know how to get involved and work with you in the best way i possibly can. Is there any information or advice for teachers in primary education.
So we know how to deal with any situations that we may come across dealing with FGM please. I initiated the bill on FGM in Nigeria and eventual passage in parliament. Since relocation to Houston,l will be interested in working with international organizations that are committed to fighting the stoppage of this barbaric vices all over the world and wii be too happy to have me linked up.
I am working on a book on FGM. My name is Kimberly Quintanilla. I am currently working on a project for school and I would love to do it on FGM to raise more awareness of it with my peers. It is a topic that most people are not aware of and that most people do not see it as a growing problem.
I wanted to know if there is any way that I may get more information, if there are any locations in Los Angeles that I can go in person to talk to someone, or if there are people who have gone through fgm or people who have researched it. Hello I have been going through your website and I must admit it really touched and inspired me a lot. I am an FGM survivor. I am a gambian and was mutilated as well. I recently found out that my chances of conceiving are very slim because of the FGM.
Am almost done with my MBA in Malaysia. Groups and Organizations fighting this cause are free to contact me, I am willing to share my story to save others. I am a young lady from Kenya , aged 21 years currently in my final year of undergraduate studies.
I come from a District where female genital mutilation has been a norm since time immemorial, girl child education is so much overlooked since most of the girls are married off as soon as seclusion period is over. It pains me whenever I meet age mates looking older than their real age, probably with 2 or 3 malnourished kids. Every December holidays I have always took part in voluntary activities aimed at sensitizing the community about multiple effects associated with FGM.
I have always had a passion to join an organisation that can help me achieve my ever haunting dreams of saving my fellow girls from this beastly act. Any help will be appreciated. Lets all join hands and give a holistic approach by creating synergies that will help us achieve our goal.
I would like to help by writing articles to raise awareness. Does anyone know of any organizations that allow guest writers? One area that has been targeted is the circumcision of the Pokot girls. We have had many educational programmes for the entire community and have a rescue center for any girl who does not want to be circumcised or forced to marry. We started our rescue programme before the Kenyan government made Female Genital Mutilation illegal.
Even in , the Pokot do not consider the law of Kenya to have precedence over their traditions. However, we have had a marked decrease in the number of girls being mutilated and those who are still undergoing the rite of passage do so quietly.
We continue to take girls in our rescue centre. The first thing we do is register the girl in our school, get her a uniform and begin her educational adventure. We thank God for every Pokot girl we have been able to save. I was absolutely shocked and saddened at seeing how little girls in Africa were subjected to female genital mutilation! It is still being done in many areas of the world.
In the Documentary we saw the little girls shaking with fear, screaming from pain because they were given no anesthesia. It was done out side on the ground. It was just horrible. I want to know if there are petitions that I can sign. I am unable to send money, but I want to do something. Any help?? Thank you and God bless you. Christine Manderfeld cmanderfeld csbsju. I would like to jump start my contribution to this cause be spending a couple of weeks somewhere to help women who are trying escape, avoid or heal.
New York: Simon and Schuster. Each room has two single beds with mosquito nets; the kitchen has an electric cooker, fridge and microwave. Dermatologic Clinics. Women's health. It's little I know and I wish I could do more and I'm grateful for that experience. Mackie, Gerry Image galleries Asia.
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Female Genital Mutilation - FGM - Female Circumcision - Infibulation
According to the definition of the World Health Organization WHO , Female Genital Mutilation FGM comprises all procedures involving partial or total removal of the external female genitalia or other injury to the female genital organs whether for cultural, religious or other non-therapeutic reasons and does not include medically prescribed surgery or that which is performed for sex change reasons.
Its practice can be found among all religious, ethnic and cultural groups and across all socioeconomic classes. It is estimated that up to million women and girls have already been subjected to some form of FGM and 2 million more are expected to experience it each year.
It also has other physical and psychological effects that do great harm to the well-being of women and children who have had it performed on them. In the countries where most or a large number of women have been mutilated, the medical complications that result from these practices place a heavy burden on the health services of these countries. Type 3: Excision of part or all of the external genitalia and stitching together of the exposed walls of the labia majora, leaving only a small hole typically less than 5cm to permit the passage of urine and vaginal secretions.
This hole may need extending at the time of the menarche and often before first intercourse. Type 4: Unclassified, covers any other damage to the female genitalia including pricking, piercing, burning, cutting or introduction of corrosive substances.
Female genital mutilation is a widespread practice that is carried out on young girls between the ages of 5 and 10 years, and in some countries on grown women as well.
Unlike male circumcision, female circumcision is not a religious obligation required by Islam, Christianity, or any of the other known religions; The practice is nevertheless a cultural tradition. It is practiced mainly in Africa and in some Asian countries.
At one time it is said to have even existed in Europe before it was abolished in that continent some centuries ago. In recent years because of immigration and population movements, the practice is emerging among refugee populations in Europe and North America where the medical and obstetrical complications that mutilated women and girls are seeking treatment for is causing a lot of concern among health-care providers in Western countries.
This concern is expressed through the constant attention FGM receives from international health and human rights organizations as well as from the world media. Prior to this present study, there had been very few studies conducted in the past, or studies had been on a small number of women. Between and the Demographics and Health Surveys published data compiled by questionnaire from 16 countries, but Somaliland and Somalia were not included.
Countries that have had repeated data collected have shown small declines in prevalence and a trend to less severe forms of mutilation. There are a number of published studies from African countries, not including Somaliland , in particular Nigeria, which have estimated FGM prevalence, but most have involved small numbers and have only been carried out over short periods.
As early as the WHO recommended, at an international conference, that the practice should be eradicated and in the World Health Assembly called for abolition of the practice.
Consequently, most countries have strict laws forbidding the practice. Female Genital Mutilation is reported to exist in many African countries. In some, it is performed on all or most women while in others it may be performed only on some women belonging to certain ethnic groups.
It has long been accepted that FGM is ubiquitous in Somaliland but accurate data has been lacking. In Somaliland the women refer to their procedure by two names, the Sunna and the Pharaonic. The Sunna correlates with Type 1 and 2 but also involves stitching of the anterior part of the genitalia to varying extent. The Pharaonic correlates with Type 3. Many successful awareness campaigns have been run in Somaliland since and as a result more Somalilanders are willing to openly discuss the topic of FGM and are becoming increasingly concerned about the health risks associated with the procedure.
The day of the FGM is considered an important event but it is kept secret from the pre-menarche child, and then sprung upon her once the necessary preparations have been made. No anaesthesia is used while brutally cutting and manipulating this very sensitive part of the female body, except when the operation is performed by a health professional who has anaesthetics and who has the proper knowledge on how to use them.
The age at which female genital mutilation is performed varies from country to country and according to the type of mutilation being done. The SUNNA is generally the type that is performed at a very young age and may be carried out soon after birth, during the first week of life or at any time before the Menarche.
This gives the operator a better pinch or grip. According to the findings of our survey, it was found that the usual age when Excision and Infibulations are performed is between seven and nine years of age.
In some cases, instead of suturing together the raw edges of the wound, these are held together with thorns that are inserted on opposite sides of the wound and then laced together with thread and left in place for seven days or until the tissues of the wound have had time to fuse together.
This type of infibulation is often practiced by nomads and agro—pastoralists. Since bleeding will occur and since there will be some secretions for some days, the family usually finds an old mat or floor covering that can later be discarded. Sometimes sand is placed on the mat under the buttocks of the child in order to absorb blood and other secretions. In the case of more affluent or educated families, they may be more likely to be aware of the risks of infection and usually such families would have clean sheets and also gauze pads to absorb any blood or secretions from the wound.
The child is made to squat on a stool or mat facing the operator at a convenient height that offers the operator a good view of the parts to be handled. This is important for the operator is often an elderly person whose sight may be impaired and who may find bending over difficult. Understandably, it is vital for the child to be held as still as possible in order to avoid inflicting cuts other than those intentionally being carried out for the purpose of Infibulation.
For this, adult helpers grab and pull apart the legs of the little girl. Usually, two persons grab one leg each and also hold down her hips; a third person holds back the head and torso. If available, this is the stage at which a local anaesthetic would be used.
The element of speed and surprise is vital and the operator immediately grabs the clitoris by pinching it between her nails aiming to amputate it with a slash. The organ is then shown to the senior female relatives of the child who will decide whether the amount that has been removed is satisfactory or whether more is to be cut off.
Since the entire skin on the inner walls of the Labia Majora has to be removed all the way down to the perineum, this becomes a very messy business as the child who is by now screaming and struggling is also bleeding profusely making it difficult for the operator to hold with bare fingers and nails the slippery skin and the parts that are to be cut or sutured together.
It needs to be stressed here that it is important for the wound to heal by first intention not only to protect the child from a repeat operation, but also mainly to preserve the popularity of the operator who would otherwise acquire a bad reputation and also would lose future potential clients if the wounds that she handles do not heal well.
Having made sure that sufficient tissue has been removed to permit the desired fusion of the skin, the operator pulls together the opposite sides of the labia majora, ensuring that the raw edges where the skin had been removed are well approximated. The wound is now ready to be stitched or for thorns to be applied. If a needle and thread are being used, close tight sutures will be placed to ensure that a flap of skin covers the vulva and extends from the Mons Veneris to the Perineum and which, after the wound heals, will form a bridge of scar tissue that will totally occlude the vaginal entroitus.
A small hole having the diameter of a matchstick will be left un-stitched in order to permit the flow of urine and vaginal secretions. If thorns are being used, an equal number would have been inserted into each side of the labia majora, and a string would then be used to pull the thorns together and thus bring the raw edges of the labia majora together. The string would be wound in the same way that sports shoes with hooks are laced. If the female genital cutting is being done by a person who has some knowledge of dressing wounds, they would apply regular medical disinfectants.
This concoction, consisting of egg, herbs, sugar, and the blood of the child, would all clog together and form a crust over the sutures or the strips of cloth holding the thorns together.
One can only wonder why more girls do not develop infections after this rich culture medium for bacteria has been placed between the legs of these little girls. No dressing is used and the legs are kept together for a week after which the leg bindings are slightly loosened and the child allowed taking small steps. The leg bindings will be removed altogether after a further week.
To ascertain that the urethra has not been accidentally closed, either by a blood clot or suture, the child is encouraged to urinate a few hours after the operation. Whether sutures or thorns were inserted, these will be removed on the seventh day but only after the operator is satisfied that the two sides of the labia majora have fused together and that the remaining hole for urination is not wider than three to five millimeters in diameter. The closure of the introitus must be reopened at the time of marriage so that the woman is able to have sexual intercourse.
The opening of the infibulation is performed by a senior female member of the community, a TBA, or in a hospital by medical staff. Occasionally, the husband forcibly performs penetration and bursts through the scar of the infibulation.
FGM puts children at risk of life threatening complications at the time of the procedure as well as health problems that remain with her for life.
They may suffer bleeding at the time of the procedure or develop severe infection , both of which can lead to death if not treated promptly. Those who do not develop life-threatening complications will still suffer from severe pain and trauma. The procedure also permits the transmission of viral infections such as hepatitis which can lead to chronic liver diseases and even HIV. The women may suffer complications such as recurrent infections, pain and obstruction associated with urination and they are at higher risk of painful menstruation and intercourse, pelvic infection and difficulties in becoming pregnant.
Retention of urine and recurrent infections often require repeated hospital admissions and some women carry a risk of developing nephritis. The development of cysts and keloids at the site of the scar are very common, often causing embarrassment and marital problems, and usually require surgery for removal.
During pregnancy there are many further complications that may occur as a direct result of the FGM. Labour may become obstructed and if early medical intervention is not provided this may lead to the death of both baby and mother. If the mother and baby survive there is the risk of damage to the vagina leading to the formation of fistulas into the bladder or bowel, which cause constant incontinence as a result of a vessico -vaginal fistula or recto-vaginal fistula.
Women in this condition are often rejected by their family and become social outcasts. During the seven years that the Edna Adan Hospital has been functional, the fistulae of over women have been surgically repaired. Apart from the many physical complications, the girls and women experience considerable psychological problems including depression, anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder.
These psychological problems are exacerbated at the time of marriage and often lead to increased distress and fear of intercourse. If de-infibulation is performed the woman is again exposed to the life threatening complications of sepsis and bleeding, and the transmission of chronic infections such as HIV and Hepatitis and also damage to the urethra if, as is common, the operator makes an error when performing the cut.
Considering the clumsy and un-hygienic conditions under which female genital mutilation is usually performed, complications are frequent and numerous and can be classified in the order in which they are likely to occur. As a result, quite a few children are taken to hospitals for the control of hemorrhage , or for the repair of severe lacerations. This the families resist because they fear that if the opening is too wide it may not be sufficient proof that their daughter is a virgin when her time comes for her to get married.
The risk is made real because the traditional healers who perform circumcisions do not know the dangers of using unsterilized instruments that have previously been used on different individuals who might have been carriers of the AIDS virus. The reasons that drive the practice of FGM lie deep within tradition and cultural heritage and are complex and difficult to determine.
Although there is variation between societies there are common themes. FGM is often wrongly believed to have a religious origin or to be a requirement of certain religions but this is not the case. Other common beliefs include that it is hygienic, aesthetically pleasing or increases fertility. For many women it is part of social integration and the mutilating process is accepted in return for benefits such as the promise of acceptance in society and the improved prospect of marriage.
Older women often believe they have benefited from FGM and that it has been essential to their identity. By the same reasoning they allow it to be performed on their daughters fearing that failure to do so may bring them suffering and social isolation.
Understanding these complex, multifaceted thought processes within societies is key to the design of successful, culturally acceptable and correctly targeted eradication campaigns. Advocacy and resistance started with individual health professionals from practicing African countries working in their communities.
Their efforts are to be commended as they worked in unreceptive environments with little support. However there are not many records of these efforts and the extent of their impact in not known. Lack of knowledge on the subject first prevented UN agencies from addressing the issue. When awareness finally came to the UN about the extent of the practice and the serious health and psychological effects that result from it, they recognized it as a major Human rights issue.
Conferences were held, studies were commissioned and discussions were finally opened on the topic. However, the mainly European representatives chairing these discussions did not understand the deep cultural ties that propagated the practice and they were unprepared for the resistance they faced by recently decolonized African nations who saw the attention on the issue as another intrusion. There were exceptions however.